Carbon Capture and Storage

Strategic Context

Power generation accounts for approximately a third of the UK’s CO2 emissions or 180 million tonnes of CO2 a year.  Capturing and storing that carbon could reduce emissions from fossil fuel power stations by as much as 95%.The ETI will accelerate the implementation of CCS technology on fossil-fuel fired power stations and other major stationary CO2 sources in the UK, by demonstrating innovative technology which reduces the capital costs of capture and storage plants and reduces the energy needed by the capture and storage processes. We are also working to reduce the risks and costs of storage projects by advancing knowledge of UK storage assets, improving monitoring and efficiency of use and improving the reliability, flexibility and operability of a fully developed chain of CCS assets.

Programme Aim

  • To accelerate implementation of CCS technology on fossil-fuel fired power stations and other major stationary CO2 sources in the UK to enable capture of 200 million tonnes of CO2 per year by 2030 and sustain 200 million tonnes per year through to 2050.
  • To reduce the capture & storage costs of CO2 to less than £28/MW-h by 2030 and less than £20/MW-h by 2050.
  • To reduce efficiency penalties of installing CCS technology to less than 7% by 2030 and less than 6% by 2050.
  • To increase the proven CO2 storage reserves available to the UK to >2 Gtonne by 2020 and >8 Gtonne by 2040.

Project summaries

Please click the following projects below for detail:

UK CO2 Storage Appraisal

Project summary lead image UK CO2 Storage Appraisal

ETI Investment

£3.8m

Date announced

October 2009

Completion date

Autumn 2011

Project Partners

  • Senergy
  • British Geological Survey
  • Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage
  • The University of Edinborough
  • Heriot Watt
  • Durham University
  • GeoPressure Technology Ltd
  • GRL
  • Imperial College London
  • RPS Energy
  • Element Energy

Overview

Fifteen gigatonnes of CO2 storage capacity would mitigate around 100 years of today’s UK fossil fuel power generation capacity. This project will allow the UK to be the first country with a comprehensive assessment and database of national CO2 storage capacity. 

It has carried out a review of potential sites suitable for storing CO2 offshore and helping to answer the question of how much storage capacity is practically available in the UK.

The UK is potentially well served with offshore CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations and, although various estimates have been made of the total amount available, those figures vary widely – particularly for saline aquifers, the focus of this project. 

The availability of sufficient high-quality storage capacity is crucial to the large scale rollout of CCS in the UK.

The resulting UK database will enable the Government, CO2 emitters, storage operators and infrastructure and technology developers to make more informed choices on the realistic extent and rollout of CCS in the UK.

CCS Performance Analysis

Project summary lead image CCS Performance Analysis

ETI Investment

£0.3m

Date announced

September 2009

Completion date

January 2010

Project Partners

  • Foster Wheeler

Overview

The Performance Analysis work provided an objective view of the performance of a range of next generation carbon capture technologies.

Capturing the CO2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power stations using the technologies currently available can increase the capital costs of new power stations by between 50 and 100% and significantly reduce power output. 

The development of capture technologies with lower costs and less impact on performance will significantly enhance the potential for wide-scale rollout of Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) in the UK.

Having initially established benchmark costs and performance of current best available technologies, the ETI worked with a range of potential technology providers to assess the likely performance of ‘next generation’ capture technologies.

This work helped inform ETI decisions about priorities for future large scale capture technology development projects.

Mineralisation

Project summary lead image Mineralisation

ETI Investment

£1m

Date announced

March 2010

Completion date

August 2012

Project Partners

  • Caterpillar
  • British Geological Survey
  • The University of Nottingham

Overview

This project will carry out a detailed study of the availability and distribution of mineral deposits across the UK and technologies that could be used to economically capture and permanently store carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from distributed sources such as small power plants and industrial facilities as well as large central power stations.

The leading technology for Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) involves capturing carbon dioxide gas then storing it underground in oil and gas reservoirs and other porous areas.

CCS by mineralisation has been identified by leading researchers as a promising additional method of sequestering CO2 emissions.

Mineralisation could be applied in cases where the more conventional approach for CO2 capture and storage is not feasible. Further, the mineralisation process permanently captures the CO2, with the resulting solid product potentially exploitable in other markets.

This study will provide a detailed assessment of the distribution of suitable raw minerals together with an estimate of how much could practically be used in CO2 capture.

CCS Next Generation Coal Capture Technology Demonstration

Project summary lead image CCS Next Generation Coal Capture 
Technology Demonstration

ETI Investment

£23.5m

Date announced

July 2011

Completion date

Summer 2015

Project Partners

  • Costain

Overview

Development of the next generation of carbon capture technologies is seen as crucial to helping the UK meet its’ 2050 climate change targets.

The ETI is working with Costain to deliver the project which will see a carbon capture pilot plant capable of capturing 95% of carbon dioxide emissions designed, built, operated and tested by the middle of 2015.

The project is aimed at pre-combustion carbon capture applications, involving CO2 removal by physical separation and will be split into two parts.

The first part, lasting 16 months and costing £3m, will provide the front end engineering design for the demonstration unit. Costain will work with the University of Edinburgh, and Imperial College, London on the first stage, to help understand and optimise performance of the technology.

The ETI expects to invest £20.5m in the second stage, as the pilot plant is built, demonstrated and the results analysed. Demonstration is a key element to building user group confidence in the capture element. A potential site has been identified for the pilot plant, and will be reviewed and ranked against other options during the first part of the project.

CCS System Modelling Tool-kit

Project summary lead image CCS System Modelling Tool-kit

ETI Investment

£3m

Date announced

September 2011

Completion date

Spring 2014

Project Partners

  • PSE
  • E4Tech
  • EDF Energy
  • E-ON
  • Rolls-Royce
  • CO2 Deep Store

Overview

This project will help support the future design, operation and roll-out of cost effective carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems in the UK.

It will create a modelling tool-kit capable of simulating the operation of all aspects of the CCS chain from capture and transport to storage and maintenance.

The CCS System Modelling Tool-kit will be used to support the initial conceptual design and eventual detailed design and operation of CCS systems by helping to identify and understand the operational issues in the system such as the effect of a power station starting up, shutting down or increasing generation in response to power demands.

It will benefit owners or developers of power stations who need to know the effect of CCS on their operations, future transport and storage operators, technology suppliers who will want to understand future requirements for their equipment and policy makers keen to understand issues around the overall CCS operation.

High Hydrogen

Project summary lead image High Hydrogen

ETI Investment

£2m

Date announced

September 2011

Completion date

Early 2014

Project Partners

  • Health and Safety Laboratory
  • Imperial College London Consultants

Overview

This project will identify the bounds of safe design and operation of high efficiency combined cycle gas turbine and combined heat and power systems, which operate on a range of fuels with high and variable concentrations of hydrogen. The goal of the project is to increase the range of fuels that can be safely used in power and heat generating plant. Using modelling and large-scale experimental work, this project will benefit the manufacturers and operators of power plants, which may potentially use fuel containing high or variable levels of hydrogen.

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